Are you an “Apple” or a “Pear?” If you have the “Apple Shape,” You May Have a Higher Risk for Dementia
Having a “pear” or “apple” shape can determine the health of a woman’s body – and mind. Of course, Eve knew all about the troubles an apple could bring.
If you gain weight in your chest and belly, you have an apple shape. If your weight gain is in your hips and thighs, you’re a pear. Studies have long shown that if your body fat is concentrated primarily in the middle – like an apple, it is more biologically active and is correlated with health problems like heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and cancer.
This study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society found that as body weight increased in post-menopausal women, cognitive function decreased. But the worst cognitive decline occurred when high body weight was coupled with an apple shape compared to the pear shaped body fat distribution.
This troubling result seems to coincide with studies showing a higher risk of dementia in people with high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes, the risk of which is heightened by having the apple-shaped body fat distribution.
If you’re overweight, you may still be healthy, as long as you’re physically active and eat healthfully. But if your excess weight is carried mostly around the middle, it would be wise to keep track of your health, especially your blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol, and lose weight so that your waist circumference* measures 35″ or less, which is what health authorities recommend for women (40″ or less for men).
*Your accurate waist circumference is measured at the level of your belly button (not the smallest part of your middle).
Share and Enjoy
You might want to cut back on the cold cuts, bacon and other processed meats. The World Health Organization is out with a new report that says cured meats and red meat increase the risk of colon and stomach cancer.
A group of 22 scientists from the IARC,The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France, evaluated more than 800 studies from several continents about meat and cancer. The studies looked at more than a dozen types of cancer in populations with diverse diets over the past 20 years.
Based on that analysis, the IARC classified processed meat as “carcinogenic to humans,” noting links in particular to colon cancer. It said red meat contains some important nutrients, but still labeled it “probably carcinogenic,” with links to colon, prostate and pancreatic cancers.
Share and Enjoy
Researchers have studied the effects of Vitamin C, most famously found in oranges, for some time, but results have been mixed. Some studies showed success while others did not, though some of the discrepancy may be explained by how the Vitamin C was administered; injections worked while oral consumption did not.
A recently published study builds on these past findings and might explain the results. Researchers found that Vitamin C is most effective in an oxidized form, meaning it has been combined with oxygen. They specifically found that high doses of oxidized Vitamin C killed mutated colorectal cells. The treatment slowed tumor growth in mice and, in one result, “dramatically changed” the metabolic profile of the mutated cells within just one hour of treatment.
The most exciting part, though? Oxidized Vitamin C has “selective toxicity”, meaning the treatments killed off cancer cells without harming normal cells.
The study was done on mice, so future steps would have to include human testing to make sure the results carry over, but the outcomes are promising and would be a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. Regardless, I’m using these findings as an excuse to add more delicious oranges to my diet!
co-authored by Nik Nartowicz
Share and Enjoy
Body Fat – It’s Not Just A Matter Of Appearances
It Can Also Be Toxic
We used to think that body fat was inert. But new research has found that fat tissue produces toxic chemicals, causing inflammation, oxidation, insulin resistance, and cancer-promoting cell growth caused by an increased level of “growth factors.” These chemicals circulate through the body and correlate with many cancers (including aggressive prostate, breast, and colon cancers), heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, muscle weakness, bone loss and other disastrous conditions. Why? But, more importantly:
But, Take Heart! Even if you’re overweight, there are many things you can do to improve your odds of avoiding these diseases! Read on…
Inflammation, caused by excess body fat among other things, contributes to illnesses which are chronic, costly, and corrode our quality of life. Inflammation is a silent killer. You don’t see it or even feel it until after many years when it blossoms into full-blown diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, muscle weakness or bone loss.
How could inflammation contribute to so many seemingly unrelated illnesses? Inflammation is your natural defense against disease-causing pathogens and it can happen anywhere in your body. When you cut your finger and it becomes red, swollen and painful, that’s inflammation at work. It’s your body’s way of fighting infection and it’s a lifesaver. Once healing begins, inflammation ceases and the body resumes normal functioning. But that immune response – which is constantly on patrol preventing diseases throughout our body, in our blood vessels and organs – can be a double-edged sword. Sometimes, it doesn’t shut down and inflammation becomes chronic. In the blood vessels, inflammation causes fatty plaque to rupture, form blood clots and leads to heart attack or stroke.
Inflammation may also contribute to insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes. And emerging research is finding that inflammation may produce genetic mutations which cause and spread cancer. It’s even a culprit in weakening muscular strength and reducing bone mass as we age. There is also evidence that in the brain, inflammation attacks nerve cells, and may contribute to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The cause of chronic inflammation can be genetic or environmental. Scientists have found that excess body fat, a sedentary lifestyle, eating a poor diet, smoking, and high blood pressure, all increase various inflammatory biomarkers and contribute to chronic inflammation and disease.
Your doctor may be able to measure your level of inflammation with a test measuring your blood’s “C-Reactive Protein” or CRP.
What exactly is oxidation? Oxidation, caused by excess body fat among other things, is similar to rusting. An example of oxidation is an apple slice turning brown when exposed to air (oxygen). But simply adding lemon or any citrus juice, an antioxidant, keeps the apple’s flesh fresh, and prevents the browning or oxidation from occurring. Our bodies are constantly “rusting” or experiencing oxidation. Oxidation is responsible for many of the conditions of aging including, but not limited to, heart disease, cancer, arthritis, bone loss, muscle weakness, neurological impairments affecting cognition and balance.
Oxidation is constantly occurring in your cells due to excess body fat, unhealthy diets, environmental pollutants, smoking, the sun, the heat generated through basic metabolic functioning/digestion, and other factors. It takes a large supply of antioxidant-rich foods, and regular amounts at every meal, to counter this.
High Glucose and Insulin
Excess body fat causes high glucose and insulin in your blood stream. High glucose has serious consequences for your cardiovascular system, can lead to blindness, kidney disease, impotence, and is a precurser to diabetes. High insulin levels are associated with heart attack and colon cancer, uncontrolled cell growth and their “growth factors” contributing to various cancers and other diseases.
What To Do About Body Fat?
Exercise Type: Many people believe that a hard work-out in the gym will lead to weight loss: NOT! I have so many clients who have done this for years and their fat hasn’t budged. You’ve seen them in the gym yourself: People who’ve come in year after year after year, and they’re still as overweight now as they were when they started. I know it’s frustrating. Just ask Joe, Elizabeth and Grace. They’re major athletes. Elizabeth is a champion rower, Grace is close to being a pro tennis player, and Joe “works out more intensely than men half his age!” So, what gives?
While strength training and yoga are wonderful for your body and mind, they do very little toward losing weight, no matter how hard your workout is. You need cardiovascular exercise – simply moving – to lower body fat. What do I mean by moving? Walking is ideal! Yes, simply walking. I and all my clients use pedometers to determine if we’re getting enough cardiovascular activity, or walking, daily.
My goal for weight and health maintenance is about 10,000 steps daily (average). That’s about 5 miles or 1.5 hours accumulated through the day. If you want to lose weight, usually it takes about 12,000 steps. If you’re in a hurry to lose weight, or want to get off – or lower – medications for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes, try 15,000 steps per day (average). It will transform your health and your life! Just ask Joe, Elizabeth and Grace – who have lost body fat for the first time in years – and are now true believers in simply WALKING!
Minimizing the Damage if You Are Overweight
Cardiovascular activity seems to be, by all accounts, the fountain of youth! It naturally clears glucose from your bloodstream and that keeps insulin levels low. It lowers blood pressure, clears fat and bad cholesterol quickly and efficiently after meals, and increases good cholesterol, thus reducing your risk for heart disease. People who are more active have less disease and live longer. Although obesity increases the risk for insulin resistance and type II diabetes, a study reported in the Annals of Internal Medicine showed that cardiovascularly fit obese people with a BMI above 27 cut their diabetes rate in half. The study showed even obese people received an independent effect from exercise.
Nutrition: Eat plenty of antioxidant-rich and ant-inflammatory foods. Eat in a way which minimizes blood sugar and insulin spikes, and cholesterol clogging your arteries.
To accomplish this, eat more…
Antioxidant-Rich and Anti-Inflammatory Foods: Plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains should be eaten at each meal to counteract the negative effects of oxidation and inflammation. Berries and Deep Green Leafy Vegetables have been found to have some of the highest antioxidant scores of all fruits and vegetables. But every fruit and vegetable will provide healthy anti-oxidants and health benefits. Supplement your diet with nuts, fresh olive oil, tea, and consistent, small amounts of alcohol.
Anti-inflammatory Foods, such as…
Fish: The omega 3 fatty acids, DHA and EPA, found in fish, are the compounds most consistently found to reduce inflammation. It’s been confirmed in large observational studies as well as controlled clinical intervention trials that fish and fish oil reduce heart disease by decreasing inflammation, arrhythmia, blood clotting, CRP and other inflammatory markers. High fish diets have also been found to reduce the incidence of Alzheimer’s and dementia. Marine-derived omega-3’s may also reduce cancer risk, arthritis, asthma, psoriasis, and other inflammatory diseases.
Flax Seeds and Walnuts: New research has found that the plant version of omega-3 fatty acids, ALA, found in flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil reduce inflammation. A clinical intervention study published in the Journal of Nutrition found ALA reduces multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors, including the reduction of CRP and other inflammatory markers. The researchers also found that as CRP lowered, good (HDL) cholesterol increased, a double benefit and an added protection from heart disease.
Vitamins E and C-rich foods: A study found that supplementation with vitamins E and C reduced inflammatory markers and improved asthma, an inflammatory condition, in children. Vitamin E is high in nuts, seeds, and oils, especially wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds, and almonds. Vitamin C is high in fruits and vegetables, especially strawberries, oranges, cantaloupe, tomato juice, mangos, cauliflower, broccoli and sweet potatoes. Another study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that when people ate regular doses of vegetable soup causing high vitamin C levels in their blood, biomarkers of inflammation decreased.
Fruits and Vegetables: Food high in antioxidants play an important anti-inflammatory role since oxidation is part of the inflammatory process. Studies show people who eat diets low in antioxidants – that is, low in fruits and vegetables – have more inflammatory diseases, like heart disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia and Alzheimer’s.
The Mediterranean Diet: A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that people eating a Mediterranean style diet had significantly reduced CRP and other inflammatory biomarkers. They also had reduced insulin resistance, a precursor to diabetes. The Mediterranean diet group ate at least nine to eleven ounces of fruit, four to six ounces of vegetables, one to two ounces of walnuts, 14 ounces of whole grains or legumes daily, and increased their consumption of olive oil. While the control group ate the same level of carbohydrates, protein and fat, they didn’t eat as much complex carbohydrates, fiber or olive oil and ate more saturated fat and cholesterol.
Vegetarian Diets: A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that long term vegetarians had markedly lower CRP levels (and their blood vitamin C levels were higher).
Reducing refined sugar, sweets and flour will help reduce blood sugar and insulin
Red meat and processed meats are correlated with heart disease and various cancers
Additional Behaviors for Minimizing the Damage of Being Overweight
Keep calories at low but healthy levels while still feeling full (in Diet Simple you can determine your personalized calorie needs). Increase consumption of high- fiber, high-water- containing, nutrient- dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. Reduce consumption of nutrient-poor, calorie- dense processed and refined foods such as chips, crackers and sweets.
Overall Calorie Reduction: Calorie restriction reduces oxidation, a contributor to inflammation. Calorie restriction also reduces inflammatory markers.
Ideally, Lose Body Fat. It will reduce oxidation, inflammation, negative hormone levels, cancer-promoting growth factors and cell proliferation. Most scientists will agree that weight loss is probably the most effective way to reduce inflammation, oxidation and cancer-promoting cellular proliferation. We used to believe that body fat was inert. But new research has found that adipose tissue produces pro-inflammatory compounds which may help explain why obesity is correlated with heart disease, cancer, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases.
Share and Enjoy
People are always asking me if fruit is too high in sugar to eat, especially if you have diabetes. This fear of fruit, I believe, is leftover from the Atkins craze, making foods like fruits, and even vegetables like carrots, verboten. This is one of the most tragic consequences of this diet fad, because avoiding fruit can actually damage your health.
People who eat fruit have a lower incidence of Type 2 Diabetes, the most common form of the disease, according to a recently published Harvard study. But this study isn’t alone in its conclusions. It corroborates decades of research showing the nutritional value and health benefits of fruits.
Fruit is high in water content and fiber, which help you feel full with fewer calories. Even though it contains simple sugars and carbohydrates, most fruits have a relatively low glycemic index, that is, when you eat it, your blood sugar raises only moderately, especially when compared with refined sugar or flour products.
Fruit is loaded with nutrients scientists believe protect people from major chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and more. The potassium in fruit helps lower blood pressure and actually helps neutralize the blood pressure-raising affects of sodium.
Eating more fruits and vegetables – as high as 5 cups per day or more – is a habit which could help you stabilize and even reverse Type 2 Diabetes. Yes, it is possible!
And, the best part of fruit? It’s delicious! It’s easy to eat, to pack in your lunch box for the office or school, and it’s such a refreshing snack or dessert. What could be better?
Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women
Nicole M Wedick, An Pan, Aedín Cassidy, Eric B Rimm, Laura Sampson, Bernard Rosner, Walter Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun, and Rob M van Dam
From the Departments of Nutrition, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; the Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; and the Departments of Epidemiology and Public Health and Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Supported by NIH grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Background: Data from mechanistic studies support a beneficial effect of specific flavonoids on insulin sensitivity. However, few studies have evaluated the relation between intakes of different flavonoid subclasses and type 2 diabetes.
Objective: The objective was to evaluate whether dietary intakes of major flavonoid subclasses (ie, flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in US adults.
Design: We followed up a total of 70,359 women in the Nurses’ Health Study, 89,201 women in the NHS II, and 41,334 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline.
Results: During 3,645,585 person-years of follow-up, we documented 12,611 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Higher intakes of anthocyanins were significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes after multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, and lifestyle and dietary factors. Consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods, particularly blueberries and apples/pears, was also associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were found for total flavonoid intake or other flavonoid subclasses.
Conclusion: A higher consumption of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich fruit was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
Share and Enjoy
On CNN: Katherine Discusses 5 Good-For-You Foods to Include in Your Diet This Year!
I first became interested in the power of Omega 3 when psychiatrists I work with began prescribing it for their depressed patients, finding it made positive improvements. Then I started hearing about its potential benefits for arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Could it be possible that one nutrient could provide so many benefits?
The connection between Omega 3s and health was first observed in the 1970’s. Scientists observed that Greenland Eskimos had a reduced rate of heart disease, rheumatoid, arthritis and other ailments even though they ate a high fat and cholesterol diet. They hypothesized that the type of fat – marine derived – might play a role. Since then, study after study has confirmed that omega 3s in fish have a potent effect on reduction of heart disease.
Omega 3s work several ways in the heart. They prevent irregular heart beat, reduce fatty placques inside artery walls, decrease blood clotting, decrease triglycerides (blood fat), increase HDL (good cholesterol), and decrease inflammation.
“Omega 3 favorably effects a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and at the top of the list is reducing the risk of sudden death from heart attack,” says Penny Kris Etherton, distinguished professor of nutrition, Pennsylvania State University
But when it comes to the benefits of Omega 3’s that may be just the tip of the iceberg!
The two most potent omega 3 fatty acids are known as DHA and EPA. They’re usually found in a 50/50 or 60/40 ratio in fish. These fatty acids end up in every single cell membrane in the human body. They act as a cell lubricant, improve flexibility and communication between cells, and are important for cell metabolism and gene expression.
It’s been well-established that omega-3 fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fat found primarily in seafood, can improve your chances of living longer if you have heart disease. But its healing powers don’t stop there. Other organs may benefit. They have a positive impact from the womb to old age.
Omega 3’s reach is vast and the health benefits are intriguing the scientific community. While not an answer to every ailment, omega 3s are essential nutrients in the human body. Studies show that omega 3s may have significant physiological and psychological benefits.
In fact, Omega-3s are so important to human health, the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board recently set a minimum daily requirement for the first time. For years we thought there was only one essential fatty acid, Omega 6 fatty acid (found in vegetable and soybean oils), but now scientists have added omega 3 to the list of essential nutrients humans must get from the diet.
But as we’ve discovered in nutrition, balance is everything. The two essential fatty acids, omega 6 and omega 3 must be in harmony with each other for proper functioning. If one or the other is too high or low, negative consequences result.
“If you eat too much omega 6, as is the case with today’s American diet, this promotes inflammation, blood clotting and constricts blood vessels,” says Artemis Simopoulos, president of the Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health and the author of The Omega Diet (Harper Collins, 1999) “When your cells contain equal amounts of Omega 6 and Omega 3, as was the case with early humans, this promotes less inflammation, less constrictive blood vessels and prevents clot formation, all important functions in preventing many diseases.”
The ideal ratio of omega6 to omega3 is the hottest debate among omega3 researchers. Some say a ratio of 1:1 or even 2:1 is acceptable. If you followed the fatty acid recommendations of The National Academy of Sciences, and had an intake of 12 or 17 grams of omega 6 for women and men, respectively, and an omega 3 fatty acid intake of 1.1 and 1.6 for women and men, your ratio would be 10:1. But many omega 3 researchers say a ratio of 1:1 or even 2:1 or 5:1 is ideal. If you’re a typical American, your ratio could be as high as 12:1 or 15:1. Still others believe a specific ratio doesn’t matter. But they all agree on the need to get more omega3s.
Omega 3 concentrations are highest in the brain and nervous system. They are necessary for optimal functioning of the neurons, protect cells, decrease cell death and improve nerve transmission. Emerging research indicates Omega 3s may boost levels of the brain chemicals serotonin and dopamine, decreasing depression and violence.
“In 5 out of 6 of the clinical trials where people were given either a placebo or omega-3 fatty acids, on average, the symptoms of depression have been reduced by about 50%,” says Joseph Hibbeln, a psychiatrist at the National Institutes for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. “This is true even when the subjects were already on anti-depressants and failing to respond to them.”
Hibbeln’s studies found an increase in depression, violence and homicides in countries who eat less fish as compared to countries who eat more fish. It may even improve conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Bone density may be enhanced by omega 3 intake.
“Osteoporosis is lower in populations who eat more fish, such as Asians, when compared to Europeans who eat more calcium-containing foods” says Bruce A. Watkins, Ph.D., nutrition professor at Purdue University. The mechanisms aren’t completely understood, but omega 3’s may help support bone formation.
Omega 3 may also benefit the skin. The Greenland Eskimo studies found they don’t suffer much from psoriasis, a skin disease causing painful inflammation, redness and scales in its sufferers.
Laboratory studies have found that omega 3s suppress the hyperproliferation of the skin cells, which causes the disease to spread. When tested in humans, after 10 weeks, 60% of the subjects experienced a decrease in the area of psoriasis and a decrease in proliferation and inflammation.
“The dose is very essential,” says the researcher, Vincent Ziboh,Ph.D., professor, dept of dermatology, Univ of Ca at Davis. “The work is promising, but more research is needed to understand the mechanism and doses, and why it works for some but not others.”
Just as omega 3s inhibit proliferation of skin cells which causes psoriasis, new research is finding it inhibits proliferation of cancer cells in the breast, prostate and colon. This is a new area of research which hasn’t been tested widely. But, a new study found breast cancer patients responded better to chemotherapy and the cancer was less likely to spread when patients were given omega 3 fatty acids. There is epidemiological evidence that men who eat more fish have lower risk for prostate cancer.
There is evidence that omega3s may help prevent type 2 diabetes and improve diabetes by reducing insulin resistance.
The FDA recently approved Omega 3s for infant formulas because of the overwhelming evidence that it improves cognition and visual functioning in children. (mother’s breast milk provides it naturally, especially when she regularly eats fish)
Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease may improve with omega 3 supplementation.
The studies are just beginning. More research needs to be done to understand who will benefit most from higher levels of omega 3 in their diets. Your genetics and environment play large roles in responsiveness to omega 3s. And while studies are very promising for a wide range of illnesses, the optimal amount of omega 3 and the ideal ratio of Omega 3 to Omega 6 are still hotly debated in the scientific community.
But what isn’t debated is that adult women need at least 1.1 grams and adult men need 1.6 grams daily, according to the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. Unfortunately, Americans don’t come even close to getting their omega 3 requirement. But we used to. Apparently, in our earlier evolutional stages, we ate plenty of wild greens, lean animals which grazed on high omega3 grasses, and fish high in Omega 3s, and our bodies evolved a need for it.
But today, omega 3s have largely been replaced with omega 6s, vegetables oils, especially soybean oil, which is used in large doses in processed foods and fast foods. And no longer do our animals graze on high omega 3 grasses, but on grains instead. This changes the fatty acid composition of the meat, to our detriment.
Most of the studies found a positive benefit with 500 to 1,000 mg of omega3s per day. The American Heart Association recommends all adults eat a variety of fish, particularly oily fish, at least twice weekly, which would provide an average of 500 mg daily. For patients with coronary artery disease, they recommend 1,000 mg daily, or double the seafood requirement (but never above 3,000 mg without a doctor’s supervision). Supplements are effective and may be used instead of eating the fish. Due to environmental pollutants found in fish, women of child-bearing age are recommended to keep their fish intake to no more than 12 ounces per week. But omega3 researchers believe the risk of not getting enough omega3 in your diet outweighs the potential risk of pollutants.
There are possible dangers to taking too much omega3 supplement. The inflammatory response is your immune system working, or overworking. This means that omega 3s are actually reducing your immune response when they reduce inflammation. So, large doses should be taken only with a doctor’s advice by people with compromised immune systems. There is also a slight increase in risk for hemorrhagic stroke or excessive bleeding.
As usual, I have to underscore balance. It may be safer to stick with food sources so you don’t go overboard and are more likely to stay in balance.
There is a vegetable source of omega 3, known as ALA. It’s found in flax seed oil, walnuts, and canola oil. The omega-3 fatty acid, ALA, is one which has to be converted to DHA and EPA, which means vegetable sources are less potent than fish oil. But it’s still a great idea to include them in your diet.
Some values of Omega-3’s in 3-1/2 ounces of Fish
Fish Omega-3’s (g)
Sardines in Sardine Oil 3.3
Atlantic Mackerel 2.5
Atlantic herring 1.6
Chinook Salmon 1.4
Atlantic Salmon 1.2
Brook Trout 0.4
Found in: S.L. Conner and W.E. Conner, “Are Fish Oils Beneficial in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66 (1997); 1020S – 1031S.
“Understanding Omega-3s” by Katherine Tallmadge, originally appeared in The Washington Post.
Share and Enjoy
According to New Study in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Researchers found that diets favoring certain foods were associated with reduced mortality.
The leading causes of death have shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. These illnesses may be affected by diet. In a study published in the January 2011 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers found that diets favoring certain foods were associated with reduced mortality. Scientists investigated empirical data regarding the associations of dietary patterns with mortality through analysis of the eating patterns of over 2500 adults between the ages of 70 and 79 over a ten-year period.
By 2030, an estimated 973 million adults will be aged 65 or older worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary patterns of a large and diverse group of older adults, and to explore associations of these dietary patterns with survival over a 10-year period. A secondary goal was to evaluate participants’ quality of life and nutritional status according to their dietary patterns.
By determining the consumption frequency of 108 different food items, researchers were able to group the participants into six different clusters according to predominant food choices:
- “Healthy foods” (374 participants)
- “High-fat dairy products” (332)
- “Meat, fried foods, and alcohol” (693)
- “Breakfast cereal” (386)
- “Refined grains” (458)
- “Sweets and desserts” (339).
The “Healthy foods” cluster was characterized by relatively higher intake of low-fat dairy products, fruit, whole grains, poultry, fish, and vegetables, and lower consumption of meat, fried foods, sweets, high-calorie drinks, and added fat. The “High fat dairy products” cluster had higher intake of foods such as ice cream, cheese, and 2% and whole milk and yogurt, and lower intake of poultry, low-fat dairy products, rice, and pasta.
The study was unique in that it evaluated participants’ quality of life and nutritional status, through detailed biochemical measures, according to their dietary patterns. After controlling for gender, age, race, clinical site, education, physical activity, smoking, and total calorie intake, the “High-fat dairy products” cluster had a 40% higher risk of mortality than the “Healthy foods” cluster. The “Sweets and desserts” cluster had a 37% higher risk. No significant differences in risk of mortality were seen between the “Healthy foods” cluster and the “Breakfast cereal” or “Refined grains” clusters.
Photo by Polly Wiedmaier